Perfect Welding

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Perfect Welding

Fit for the future thanks to smart robot welding technology

Application Story

Pursuing progress and innovation in consultation with the customer, trendsetting Austrian company Anton Paar manufactures high-precision measuring devices for a wide range of industries. Its dedicated research, engineering, and production teams aspire to keep pushing the boundaries of what’s possible. Today, Anton Paar GmbH is the world leader in density and concentration measurement, rheometry, and the analysis of dissolved CO2. A growing shortage of skilled workers and ever-increasing quantities call for intelligent production solutions, so the company invested in a latest-generation robotic welding cell.

Up until now, all components of the measuring and control devices Anton Paar produces in Graz, Austria have been welded by hand. This was because robotic welding systems were deemed uneconomical for small batch sizes between one and 400 pieces. Ongoing sales growth, the increasing shortage of skilled workers in the domestic job market, and innovative robot technologies—which now make automated welding economically viable even for small batch sizes—prompted the high-tech company to invest in a modern robotic welding system. The measurement and control specialists at Anton Paar were looking for flexibility all along the line, combined with a high degree of cost effectiveness. This meant flexibility in terms of the number, shape, and size of the components, in their positioning, and in the use of different welding processes.

Dominik Santner, COO at Anton Paar GmbH, says, “The shortage of skilled workers and ever-increasing quantities call for new solutions in production. The new robotic welding cell represents a huge step towards automation of our manufacturing. If we were to weld our process sensors manually like before, we would encounter huge difficulties achieving the planned quantities in the coming years.” 

Autonomous welding and a broad range of components

From the outset, the emphasis has been on system autonomy for the experts at Anton Paar. Once set up, the welding system needed to be able to process a complete order from start to finish in a single pass. For example, welding a batch of different objects such as oscillator housings, main carriers, or countercoolers. And the system had to be able to do this completely independently and without the intervention of welding specialists.

A range of factors made designing the system especially challenging for engineering and programming teams, including components of various shapes, weights, and sizes, different gripping, positioning, and storage possibilities, the option to use two different welding processes (TIG and MIG/MAG) on a single component, as well as the use of forming gas to protect the components against tarnishing, which is necessary for cylindrical bodies. 

“We were looking for a reliable partner who was very similar to us in terms of precision and quality. We wanted someone who would really listen to us, respond to our preferences, and propose sustainable solutions. A partner that would give us a competitive edge for years to come,” explains Daniel Moik, department manager for joining technologies. “Fronius International met these criteria for a sustainable partnership. In close cooperation with our technicians, the welding automation team developed a robotic welding cell that meets our requirements in every respect. On top of that, Fronius is ready to work with us to evolve the system and adapt it to new needs.”

Synonymous with efficiency: Fronius Pathfinder

At Anton Paar, new welds are programmed offline—away from the welding system—rather than directly on the system, as is often the case. Rather than stopping ongoing welding work, welding continues during programming, increasing productivity. The welding technicians create the conditions for this by importing the CAD data of the measuring device components to be welded into the Fronius Pathfinder®. Various joining scenarios are then tested and welding sequences are defined and optimized in the course of simulations. 

Starting points, work angles of the welding torches, torch offsets in the corner areas, and all reorientations of the welding robot are all taken into account during these simulations. Pathfinder identifies instances where the robot range is exceeded, known as axis limits. By the software operators correcting the storage location of the workpiece and positioning it within arm's length of the welding robot, potential collisions between the torch and various component edges are avoided at an early stage. 

Sources of errors are identified in good time 

If the track needs to be corrected, the affected teach points can be easily moved by dragging and dropping them. When the approach to the component needs to be changed, the specialists simply press “Reset.” The virtual robot then moves to the home position to start a new approach run. Under real-life conditions, operators would have to complete the time-consuming process of retracting the robot, moving it to the home position with the robot controller, and restarting the teaching process. By opting for the Pathfinder offline programming and simulation software, the experts at Anton Paar not only gain valuable time for welding work but also identify sources of error ahead of time.  

Once a welding program has been set up in Pathfinder, it is translated by a so-called post-processor into the specific code of the Fanuc welding robot. It can then be transferred to the welding system via data transfer using a LAN connection, for example. A key feature that provides effective support for production planning as a whole is the “Determination of cycle time” function, which includes welding speeds as well as gas pre-flow and end crater filling times. Compared to teaching with the robot controller, Pathfinder can achieve a time savings of up to 90%, depending on the component geometry and welding requirements.

Customized for Anton Paar

Anton Paar has access to custom workflows for welding its many different components, including the three main workflows, which are a prime example of the incredible flexibility in the range of components.

Workflow 1: The components are welded on the turn-tilt positioner. A pallet loaded with components is removed from the pallet rack and temporarily stored on a pallet storage table. The handling robot then attaches a suitable gripper for picking up components, with six different ones being kept in what is known as a gripper station. Equipped with the gripper, the handling robot picks up the components and fixes them in a component-specific clamping device, which is already installed on the manipulator. The robot always removes one component at a time, which is then joined and returned to the pallet.

Workflow 2: The components are welded directly on the pallets, with the handling robot transporting the pallets from the pallet rack and positioning them in front of the welding robot. The handling and welding robots can then perform coordinated movements together during the welding process, enabling them to weld not just simple seam geometries but complex ones as well.

Workflow 3: The components are removed individually, positioned by the handling robot, and move in sync with the welding robot during welding. This is called “coordinated motion.”

Making sure the system knows what to do

In addition to the innovative Fronius welding technology, controls, tool center point (TCP) measurement, torch cleaning station, and enclosure, the robotic welding system consists of seven core modules that collaborate on the basis of software control. These consist of a handling robot, a welding robot, a turn-tilt positioner with forming gas unit, a pallet store with two racks, a gripper station, a torch changing system, and a pallet repository inside the system. The following steps are required in order for those modules to interact precisely during the working cycles.

First, pallets and components are created together in the HMI-T21 RS system controls, which are provided with four important pieces of information by the relevant welding specialist: (1) the pallet type and (2) the type, (3) the number, and (4) the position of the components on the pallet—for example, how many main carriers or oscillator housings are located in which position on which pallet. If it is an offset pallet, the component position is calculated on the basis of the so-called offset distances between the components, with the first component assuming the master position. For example, an offset might be 200 mm on the y-coordinate and +200 mm on the x-coordinate. The pallets manufactured by Anton Paar consist of perforated plates that are centimeters thick and function as a plug-in system. They are located in a pallet store consisting of two racks and are designed to accommodate each of the different workpieces, with the receiving and depositing positions of individual components often varying depending on the nature of the component and the gripper of the handling robot. 

The robot controller contains a hierarchically superordinate robot program for each workflow type. This is where the welding programs created with Pathfinder are stored. If a pallet for Workflow 2 is created on the HMI (components are welded directly on the pallet), the robot controller filters the corresponding robot welding programs, and Anton Paar’s welding specialist can conveniently choose between all the programs that are available for Workflow 2 and assign the right one to the pallet. There is also the option to not only use a single welding program but also create an entire work sequence. For example, a TIG program can be created for a pallet, followed by a MAG program (e.g., CMT) in the same sequence. In this case, the robotic welding system would execute both programs one after the other and automatically change the welding process. In addition, the experts at Anton Paar can insert certain special steps into the HMI process. For instance, the system knows the special “Turn component” step, which can be used between the two welding processes (TIG and CMT) if necessary.

If a specific gripper is required for pallet handling, as described in Workflow 1, the system operator must select it in the system. As previously mentioned, there are a total of six different grippers available, all of which are kept in a gripper station.

Teaching gripping and depositing positions

The conventional handling sequence itself—picking up the pallet, positioning it for welding, transporting it back, and depositing it—is a standard program and requires no intervention from the operator. This is referred to in the field as an “encapsulated” function. Only the gripping positions have to be specified.

If a new component is “moved in” and not recognized by one of the depositing or receiving stations, the automatic run pauses. The welding specialist is prompted to start a teaching process with the robot controller—the Fanuc iPendant—and receives step-by-step instructions from the system software. Based on this, the system “learns” the required gripping/depositing position for the relevant station (e.g., for the clipboard). This position is stored in a register and is available for the handling process from that point on. The automatic run can then continue to the next station. If the component is also unknown there, this position must also be taught. Once all the stations have been worked through as described, the handling robot transports all other identical components through the system automatically, without interruption.

If a pallet should have seven components but there are only three components on it, this is no issue for the system. It detects an “empty grip” and automatically moves to the next component position.

Custom-made: the teach pallet

In addition to the standard offset assignment, which favors simple component shapes, Anton Paar wanted to be able to deposit up to 30 metal components at any point on a pallet. Fronius responded by creating the “Teach pallet” function. Selecting this function makes it possible to separately teach the position of each component on the pallet. 

“These two versions, offset and teach pallet, offer us maximum flexibility in component placement,” explains Dr. Ingo Riemenschneider, department manager for production automation. “It doesn’t always make sense for us to define component positions using offset distances. We have to fix some components in different orientations because of their complex shapes.”

As precise as on the first day—even after months

When the welding specialists want to start a welding process, they use their handheld scanner to scan the item number on the component data sheet. 

“If the system detects the item number and thus the component, it knows about the handling and welding process and starts operation. Everything is controlled via the HMI-T21 RS. The system stores which gripper and which device are needed for each of the components,” explains Riemenschneider. “The same applies to the argon flushing time during forming and the seam time. The system also knows whether and what data is required for process data recording.”

Months later, the robotic welding cell is still just as precise as on the first day, and the weld seam is perfectly positioned in the same place. This can also be attributed to the fact that Anton Paar manufactures the components with micrometer precision and joins them with an exemplary level of quality.  

Components can be turned multiple times—even during forming

The turn-tilt positioner has a media conduit for four flow-through lines, two for air and two for argon, and can transmit up to 32 input-output signals (IOs). It is made of plastic and was produced by Anton Paar using 3D printing. If components need to be formed, the handling robot first retrieves the required clamping device from the pallet rack and clamps it on the manipulator with the help of a special clamping system. From that point on, both the air lines for the pneumatic cylinders and the gas lines for flushing with argon are connected. The electrical signals are now also transmitted by the clamping device. The handling robot then positions the components and the system sends the signal for clamping. Forming can now be carried out, followed by welding. The system is designed in such a way that the components can be turned several times on a single clamping device.

“It is important to us that all processes and properties that were implemented in the system are open in terms of their repeatability. The matter of whether a turning process is carried out once or a hundred times has to be irrelevant from the perspective of the system. Given that the complexity of our components is constantly changing, we and the experts at Fronius put a lot of energy into making the processes as unrestricted as possible,” notes Riemenschneider. 

Residual oxygen measurement made by Anton Paar

When forming on the tilt-turn positioner, the residual oxygen in the component is measured with the company’s own Oxy 5100 measuring device. It carries out drift-free measurement of the dissolved oxygen in the gas stream in real time during the entire welding process. Normally, the component is fixed between two sections of a line. The forming gas flows in on one side, on the supply line, and out again as a flow of exhaust gas on the other side, where the residual oxygen content is measured. This procedure would be counterproductive for the automated welding process, as the robot would have to take the extra step of inserting and removing an exhaust gas hose during each welding process. The decision was therefore made to place the measuring device in the supply line. As soon as the device reports that the desired residual oxygen content has been reached, welding is started, taking into account a time delay for the time it takes the argon gas to flow through the component. This period is needed to ensure that the required residual oxygen content is not exceeded. The time it takes for the component to be completely filled—the time delay—is determined for each of the components based on a manual measurement and stored in the system. If the component comes up again, the controller can access the values and respond accordingly.

At the apex of welding technology

It was particularly important for Anton Paar’s welding specialists to be able to combine two welding processes for a component—for example, TIG for welding the root pass and MAG for welding the final run. However, the final choice of welding method depends on the welding calculations and the required resistance of the individual components. 

“Our welding tests are the deciding factor in whether we use special processes such as CMT (cold metal transfer), PMC (pulse multi control), or LSC (low spatter control). The process we then decide on depends on the wall thickness of the component, on the type of weld, for example square butt or fillet weld, and on the required welding depths and micrographs,” Moik explains. “We need about six or seven tests before we go into series production.If the heat input would be too great due to the nature of the material, the CMT ‘cold’ welding process is of course suitable. If we want to boost productivity by increasing the welding speed, we look at PMC. If welding needs to be particularly low spatter, LSC might be a good choice, primarily because this prevents expensive rework.”

The welding data is recorded in the HMI. If the welding specialist finds a fault during the visual inspection, they can check the welding data record to see whether there have been any deviations from the limit values. Every component is subjected to a visual inspection (VI) as a matter of principle, and every tenth component undergoes a color penetration test (PT). This method can be used to detect cracks, pores, and lack of fusion of down to 1 µm. The PT-tested metal components are regularly subjected to micrographs at the end of the test cycle.

The innovative Fronius processes, a system concept that is both intelligent and flexible, and the ongoing potential to continue developing the robotic welding system ensure that Anton Paar’s sensitive, high-precision measuring devices will have perfect weld seams for years to come. The company’s welders simultaneously benefit from increased safety and protection of their health as they are shielded from the arc and its emissions by the enclosure and extraction system. 

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1.1 All deliveries and other services effected by Fronius Canada Ltd. ("we”, “us”, “our”, “our-selves”) and all payments made to us, shall be exclusively governed by these General Terms of Delivery and Payment. Insofar as applicable provisions may be found to be missing there-from the law of Canada applies. If any business terms of the Ordering Party are at variance with these General Terms of Delivery and Payment, we shall only be bound by such divergent terms if we have expressly recognised the same by letter or by telefax. 1.2 In taking delivery of the goods and/or services, the Ordering Party acknowledges the exclusive applicability of our General Terms of Delivery and Payment.


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3.1 Acceptance of an order, and any undertakings or supplementary agreements made by our employees, as well as amendments and alterations of any kind, shall not be binding upon us until we have issued written confirmation by letter, telefax or e-mail.


4.1 Prices are always the list prices valid on the date of delivery. They are ex-works prices (EXW [Incoterms in the latest version]), exclusive of packaging, insurance, loading at the factory and value-added tax; the packaging will not be taken back.

4.2 Payments are to be made net cash, without any deduction and free of charges, within 30 days of the invoice date. It shall be for us to decide which claims or partial claims of the Ordering Party may be offset against such payments.

4.3 If any changes in order execution are necessitated by circumstances where risk is borne by the Ordering Party, then this latter shall bear all additional costs thereby incurred.

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4.6 Where the Ordering Party holds claims against ourselves, we are entitled to offset these against our own claims against the Ordering Party, at any time.

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5.1 The delivery period commences with the mailing of the order confirmation note, while the performance period for installation, maintenance or repair work commences when the equipment is handed over. On no account, however, shall the delivery or performance period start to elapse sooner than 14 days after the time when the Ordering Party has furnished us with the documents (e.g. engineering drawings, plans etc), permits or approvals which it is responsible for procuring, or when it has made the agreed pre-payment. The delivery or performance deadline is deemed to have been met if we have notified the Ordering Party prior to such deadline of our readiness to deliver or perform; in cases where a special agreement obliges us to dispatch or deliver, the delivery or performance deadline shall be deemed to have been met if the object of delivery or performance has left our factory prior to such deadline.

5.2 Delivery or performance periods are extended for the duration of any unforeseen impediments lying outside our sphere of influence, such as stoppages, major personnel outages, unlawful strikes, delays in supplies of essential raw materials or components or the like, as well as by circumstances where risk is borne by the Ordering Party, to the extent that these impediments and/or circumstances are of material relevance to the failure to meet the deadline. Impediments and/or circumstances of this nature also annul the consequences of a default for which we would otherwise be liable, for the duration of such impediments; any contractual penalty obligations which may have been agreed for specific instances shall entirely cease to apply. Immediate notification is to be given of the beginning and end of such impediments. We are entitled to terminate the contract, in whole or in part, if such impediments should occur. In this case, unless the Ordering Party proves gross negligence on our part, damages claims from the Ordering Party shall be inadmissible.

5.3 If agreed delivery or performance deadlines, or deadlines that have been extended in accordance with 5.2 above, are exceeded by more than four weeks, the Ordering Party shall be entitled to terminate the contract, having granted us at least 14 days’ extra time by notice given to us in a registered letter. Unless the Ordering Party proves gross negligence on our part, damages claims from the Ordering Party shall be inadmissible in this case.

5.4 If the Ordering Party incurs a loss from a delay for which we are liable, then it shall be entitled to compensation amounting to 0.5% per whole week - up to a maximum of 5% - of the value of that part of the delivery which cannot be used in time or for its intended purpose as a result of the delay. For other services, the compensation shall be 5% of the remuneration. Any damages claims going beyond the above shall be inadmissible, as shall claims for damages in consequence of delays on the part of our suppliers, unless gross negligence is proven on our part.

5.5 In cases where we have undertaken to effect shipping, the mode and route of shipping shall be for us to decide. Goods are always shipped at the Ordering Party’s risk and expense. We shall only be liable for damage if gross negligence is proven on our part. We shall only take out transport / breakage insurance by order and for the account of the Ordering Party.

5.6 We are entitled to effect part-deliveries.

5.7 Our compliance with the delivery period shall be contingent upon the Ordering Party having fulfilled its contractual obligations in all pending, still-to-be-completed business transactions.

5.8 If shipping is delayed due to circumstances where risk is borne by the Ordering Party, then this latter shall bear all resulting additional costs, such as those for storage at our factory, but with a minimum monthly charge of 0.5% of the invoice amount. In such a case we shall also be entitled to grant the Ordering Party a grace period of at most 14 days, and if this period should expire to no avail, we shall then be entitled, at our own discretion, either to make alternative arrangements regarding the article(s) to be delivered and to effect delivery to the Ordering Party within a suitably extended period of time, or to terminate the contract and claim damages for breach of contract. In this latter case, we are entitled, without having to furnish any particular proof, to require 10% of the remuneration for the intended delivery as indemnification. Where appropriately substantiated, we can also claim compensation for any damage over and above this amount.

5.9 Goods ordered on call, or for production with no shipping instructions, must be taken delivery of within three months. If this time limit elapses unused, then 5.8 shall apply analogously.

5.10 For services performed under contracts for work and materials (4.7), the Ordering Party is to provide us with the necessary equipment and auxiliary materials (e.g. winches, rails, electricity etc.) in good time and at no charge, even if installation is included in the price (4.1) or if a flatrate price has been agreed for this. Any works needing to be carried out by the Ordering Party preparatory to installation, e.g. building work, must be completed prior to the arrival of our installation technicians. Furthermore, the Ordering Party must take all safety precautions needed for the protection of persons and property. We shall not accept liability for the ancillary personnel, equipment and auxiliary materials which may be placed at our disposal unless gross negligence is proven on our part.


6.1 Risk shall pass to the Ordering Party as soon as the articles to be delivered, or the articles on which we have performed maintenance, repair or other work, have left our factory. The same shall also apply to part-deliveries or in cases where we have undertaken to bear the shipping charges or to perform delivery, setting-up, assembly, installation or other similar services. If the maintenance, repair or other work is carried out in the domain of the Ordering Party, then risk shall pass to this latter as soon as it has received notification that the work in question has been completed.

6.2 If there is any delay in dispatching or delivering the shipment for reasons for which we are not liable, the risk shall pass to the Ordering Party as soon as it has been notified that the consignment is ready for delivery.


7.1 We shall retain title to the article(s) delivered until our purchase-price claims, and all other claims that we have – on whatever legal grounds – against the Ordering Party, have been settled in full.

7.2 The Ordering Party is only permitted to re-sell the article delivered – even if this has been joined to other items or subjected to processing – in the course of its company’s regular business operations. However, this permission is precluded if the resulting claims are assigned to third parties or are the subject of an assignment prohibition, or if the Ordering Party is insolvent or in default with the performance of its contractual obligations. No other manner of disposition whatever is permitted to the Ordering Party. In the event of distrainment, confiscation or other disposition by third parties, the Ordering Party is to notify us hereof immediately. Our legal expenses incurred in connection with the enforcement of our title are to be borne by the Ordering Party. 

7.3 The Ordering Party assigns to us even now its claims and other rights from the re-sale, rental or leasing of the article delivered, even if this latter has been joined together with other items or subjected to processing; the Ordering Party shall make an entry to this effect in its books. If the article delivered is sold or placed into the hands of a third party for such party’s use together with other items (regardless of whether or not it has been joined to any such items or subjected to processing), then the receivables claim shall only be assigned up to the amount of the purchase price owed to ourselves. This is without prejudice to any further damages claims.

7.4 The Ordering Party is only entitled to collect the claims and to assert the other rights to the extent that it has met its payment obligations towards us and is not insolvent.

7.5 If the Ordering Party should act contrary to the terms of the contract – in particular by being in arrears with payment or with any other contractual obligation, and/or by being insolvent – we shall be entitled, at our own discretion, either to terminate the contract without granting any grace period or, while leaving the contract in force, to take back the article delivered or to forbid it to be used. We shall also be entitled to sell the taken-back article in the open market; after deduction of a handling fee of 10% of the proceeds thus realised, the remainder will be debited from the total of our outstanding claims against the Ordering Party. Pending return of the article in the event of our terminating the contract, we shall charge the Ordering Party a usage fee of 5% of the original value of the article, unless the actual diminution in its value is even greater.


8.1 We give no warranty for ordinary deviations in size, weight or quality (or as tolerated by ÖNORM, EN or DIN standards), and also no warranty for information given regarding the suitability of the article(s) to be delivered for the purpose contemplated by the Ordering Party, or for any other particular purpose.

8.2 Although we warrant the correctness of our processing instructions, user/operating manuals and customer advisory service, compliance with statutory or other regulations when using the articles delivered, and the testing of these articles for the purpose envisaged, shall remain the sole responsibility of the Ordering Party. We shall only be answerable for any instructions differing from our written processing instructions and user/operating manuals if we expressively previously confirmed these deviations to the Ordering Party in writing, either by letter, telefax or e-mail.

8.3 Articles or services supplied must be inspected by the Ordering Party immediately after delivery has been taken of them. Any defects must be reported to us immediately upon being discovered, in a written notice sent by letter, telefax or e-mail quoting the number and date of the order confirmation note, of the delivery note or of the invoice, and the serial and commission numbers. If the Ordering Party omits to make this immediate notification, it may no longer assert any warranty claims or claims for compensatory damages on account either of the defect itself or of any misapprehension as to whether the delivery or service was free of defects. The notice must set out which delivered items or supplied services are affected by the defects, what the defects consist of in detail, and under what concomitant circumstances these defects occurred. Every single defect must be exactly described. Any costs which we incur as a result of unjustified notices or notices that are otherwise at variance with the conditions of use are to be refunded to us by the Ordering Party.

8.4 In the case of corrective and preventive maintenance work, our warranty shall be limited to the services actually rendered. We shall only warrant correct functioning of an installation, machine, software or the like whose components were not all supplied by ourselves if we provable have undertaken – despite the provision of certain components by the Ordering Party or by third parties – to manufacture the installation (or machine etc.) as a whole, and if the faulty functioning in question is not attributable to incorrect or incomplete information from the Ordering Party.

8.5 Unless otherwise agreed, the warranty period shall be 24 months. From the beginning of the 13th month of this period, however, our warranty shall be limited to making available, free of charge, the items needed for remedying the defects; from this time onwards, any warranty claims going beyond the above shall be inadmissible. This period limitation also applies to the supply of items deemed to be immovable and to work on items which are, or are deemed to be, immovable. The warranty period shall start to elapse upon the passage of risk in accordance with Point 6. The Ordering Party must always prove that defects coming to light during the warranty period were already present at the time of the passage of risk.

8.6 In cases where we do give warranty, we shall – at our own discretion and within a reasonable period of at least 4 weeks’ duration – either exchange the defective article itself, or its defective components, for a defect-free article or defect-free components, or remedy the defect(s), or grant the Ordering Party a reasonable reduction in price, or (unless the defect in question is a minor one) cancel the contract. The warranty period is not prolonged by the exchange of the item or of parts or components belonging to the item. If, however, the remainder of the warranty period – including that part of the period during which our warranty is limited to free provision of the requisite materials in accordance with Point 8.5. – lasts for less than twelve months, then the warranty period for the exchanged items, parts or components shall be extended to twelve months. The items, parts or components thus exchanged shall become our property. We shall not refund the costs for any actual or attempted remedying of a defect by the Ordering Party or by any third party.

8.7 To the extent that is necessary and may reasonably be expected of the Ordering Party, the object of delivery or performance, or the defective part(s) thereof, are to be dispatched or shipped to us immediately at our request, at the Ordering Party’s risk and expense, failing which any and all warranty obligation on our part shall become void.

8.8 The Ordering Party is not entitled to withhold payments on account of warranty claims or other counter-claims not recognised by ourselves.

8.9 Warranty claims from the Ordering Party are excluded in cases where the installation, user and operating manuals provided by ourselves, or to be requested from us by the Ordering Party, have not been observed, or where the user has not been (fully) obligated to observe such instructions; if the installation work has not been performed properly and in accordance with the relevant Standards and in particular if was not carried out by licensed contractors; if any corrective maintenance or other work has been performed on the object of delivery or performance without our consent; if it has been improperly operated or used, or operated despite its protective features being faulty, or taken out of the contract territory without our consent, or used contrary to our instructions or for purposes for which it is not intended; and, moreover, where defects are attributable to foreign object damage, chemical influences, overvoltage, the conduct of third parties or to force majeure; the same applies in respect of natural wear-and-tear.

8.10 Our warranty is also excluded in cases where we have been contracted to carry out repair-orders, to alter or modify used items, or to supply such items.

8.11 Finally all warranty claims shall be excluded if Contractee installs third-party components or replacement parts in our delivery items or services provided by us which have not been expressly recommended by us prior thereto.

8.12 In addition to the rights of Contractee in accordance with Point 8.6 regarding the delivery of inverters for photovoltaic systems the guarantee in accordance with the guarantee conditions of Fronius shall apply, available at

8.13 Except as stated above and to the extent permitted by local law, we make no representation or warranty, express or implied, statutory or otherwise, with respect to products sold or distributes by us. No person ist authorized to give any further representation or warranty or to assume any further obligation on behalf of us. After the period of limited warranty, we disclaim any warranties and conditions, either express or implied, including bit not limited to any statutory conditions or implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for purpose, and disclaim any implied warranties arising from a course of performance, dealing, usage, or trade practice.


9.1 We shall only accept unlimited liability for damage, of whatever kind, to the extent that the Ordering Party proves that we ourselves brought about this damage either knowingly and willfully or grossly negligently. If the Ordering Party proves that we have caused damage in an ordinarily negligent manner, our obligation to indemnify shall be limited to the damage actually incurred, and, moreover, to a maximum overall amount not exceeding the total order value. Furthermore, claims of this type may only be enforced at law if asserted within six months of the damage in question becoming known.

9.2 In the event that we are taken to law by a third party where we have produced and delivered in accordance with the drawings, designs, models or other documents provided by the Ordering Party, the Ordering Party shall indemnify and save us harmless.

9.3 To the extent permitted by law, our liability to pay damages for property damage by reason of the applicable product liability legislation, including all rights of recourse, is excluded. When using the installations, machines and other articles delivered by ourselves, the Ordering Party is obliged to painstakingly observe all safety regulations, technical rules, installation regulations, operating instructions and user manuals, and in particular all regulations applying to the electrical engineering field, and to allow only authorised skilled personnel to operate the equipment.

9.4 Any liability for damage caused by the installation or use of third-party components or replacement parts with our delivery items, which have not been verifiably and expressly recommended by us, shall be excluded.


Client shall agree that Fronius International GmbH and its subsidiaries may collect, process and use personal data (such as name, address, email address), if applicable also by commissioning a service provider, for the purpose of sending information regarding products and services of any kind (e.g. by post, email, newsletter and more). A dissemination to externals in excess thereof shall not occur (excluded are legal or judicial obligations to provide information). The consent may be objected at any time in writing, in the newsletter there is also a link to unsubscribe.


11.1 The place of performance for deliveries, other services and payments, and the sole place of jurisdiction, shall be Ontario, Canada. However, we shall also be entitled to seek legal recourse against the Ordering Party at the court which has “in-rem” and territorial jurisdiction under the relevant laws or regulations for the Ordering Party’s commercial domicile or place of residence.

11.2 Legal disputes arising out of the contract are to be governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario, the federal laws of Canada as applicable hereinand by the commercial practice prevailing at the place of performance. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, on the other hand, shall not be applicable. 

11.3 The Ordering Party hereby authorises us to carry out name checks in the land register(s) in the territory of the Ordering Party, and shall provide us upon our demand with a written authority to request copies and notices from the register of persons in the land register.


For software delivered together with other items or for software delivered separately (here-after “software”) these Terms and Conditions of Delivery and Payment only apply insofar as these do not deviate from the following conditions or from conditions agreed upon separately with the Ordering Party.


12.1.1 All rights of intellectual property, such as copyright, trademark rights, design rights, patent rights, utility model rights and know-how, as well as in particular unprotected inven-tions, commercial experience, trade secrets and such like, independent from the time these were disclosed to the Ordering Party, shall be reserved at any time by us or our licensors. The Ordering Party shall have the right to use the software after payment of the agreed sum ex-clusively for his own purposes in accordance with the acquired number of licences. With the present contract only the authorization to use the software is acquired. Dissemination by the Ordering Party shall be excluded in accordance with the copyright law. With a possible par-ticipation of the Ordering Party in producing the software no rights other than the specified usage laid out in Section 12 are acquired. The Ordering Party may only use the software simultaneously on one device, which one is his decision. Usage of the software shall constitute any long-term or even any temporary duplication (copying) of the software, whether in whole or also only in part, by saving, loading, running or displaying for the purpose of execution of the software and processing of the data contained therein by the hardware. He shall not be authorized to copy the user manual.

12.1.2 The Ordering Party shall be permitted to make copies of the software for archival and data protection purposes on condition that there is no explicit prohibition in the software or any accompanying material (instruction manual, packaging, etc.) and that all copyright and proprietary notices are transferred unchanged in these copies. Retranslations of the proggramme code (decompilation) exceeding the legal provisions shall not be permitted.

12.1.3. If the software is equipped with technical copy protection, the Ordering Party shall in the case of damage be supplied with a replacement copy after restitution of the data carrier.



In the event of availability of a new software version the Ordering Party shall be entitled to exchange the supplied software package for a similar software package of the new version at our listed update price; the exchange implies the software package as a whole, as it was acquired by the Ordering Party. With the exchange Ordering Party´s permission to use the exchanged software package shall expire. In such an event the Ordering Party shall immediately and completely destroy all copies, partial copies and backup copies as well as altered or revised versions of the software and the copies, partial copies and backup copies made thereof .



12.3.1 The Ordering Party shall note that it is not possible to develop software programmes in such a manner that these are free from defects for every application condition.

12.3.2 We shall warrant that the supplied software fulfils the agreed functions and has the expressly guaranteed properties. Requirement for any warranty is usage according to contract. A defect for which we are responsible shall only be deemed to exist if the software does not function according to the most recent version of the corresponding performance description/ documentation and if this is reproducible by the Ordering Party. In order to carefully examine possible occurring defects the Ordering Party shall be obliged to support us in the rectification of any defects.

12.3.3 We further shall warrant that the original software is duly recorded onto a tested data carrier. Excepted here from are previously installed software and third-party software products.

12.3.4 Software defects shall be documented by the user and we shall be notified in writing with immediate effect; otherwise 8.3 shall apply. 

12.3.5 The warranty period shall always be twelve months; the period commences with the dispatch of the software package.

12.3.6 If the software package is not usable or defect (12.3.2), we shall exchange it primarily for a new one of the same title or for an adequate alternative solution. If this also proves to be unusable or defect and if we are not in a position to make it usable with adequate effort within an adequate time, but at least within a period of four weeks, the Ordering Party may demand a price reduction or a change. Costs of defect rectification by the Ordering Party or a third person shall not be compensated by us. 

12.3.7 In excess of this (12.3.6) we shall not provide warranty, in particular not in the case of the supplied software not meeting the special requirements of the Ordering Party or user, and also not for altered or revised versions of the software (point 12.1.2), unless the Ordering Party can prove that the defects are not connected to the alterations or revisions. The Ordering Party itself is solely responsible for the selection, installation and usage of the software as well as for the results intended therewith.

12.3.8 In the event of unjustified assertion of defects in the software we shall be entitled to charge the Ordering Party with any incurred costs according to valid cost rates.

12.3.9 A change of the end-user shall exclude any warranty claims



12.4.1 All further claims of the Ordering Party or third persons, in particular claims for compensation for damages of any kind, shall be excluded, unless the injured party can prove that the damage was caused by us either intentionally or due to gross negligence.

12.4.2 Otherwise Point 9 shall apply accordingly.